The majority of railways in New South Wales are currently operated by the state government. Some lines began as branch-lines of railways starting in other states. For instance, Balranald near the Victorian border was connected by a rail line coming up from Victoria and into New South Wales. Another line, beginning in Adelaide crossed over the border and stopped at Broken Hill.
Railways management is conducted RailCorp which builds railways and maintains rolling stock. It operates trains within Sydney-Wollongong-Newcastle under the name CityRail. It operates country and interstate services under the CountryLink badge.
Major roads are the concern of both federal and state governments. The latter maintains these through the Roads and Traffic Authority (RTA) formerly the Department of Main Roads (DMR).
The main roads in New South Wales are
- * Hume Highway linking Sydney to Melbourne;
- * Princes Highway linking Sydney to Melbourne via the Tasman Sea coast;
- * Pacific Highway linking Sydney to Brisbane via the Pacific coast;
- * New England Highway running from the Pacific Highway, at Newcastle to Brisbane by an inland route;
- * Federal Highway running from the Hume Highway south of Goulburn to Canberra;
- * Sturt Highway running from the Hume Highway near Gundagai to Adelaide (South Australia);
* Great Western Highway linking Sydney with Bathurst. As Route 32 it continues west as the Mitchell Highway then as the Barrier Highway to Adelaide via Broken Hill.
Other roads are usually the concern of the RTA and/or the local government authority.
Kingsford Smith Airport (commonly Sydney Airport, and locally and erroneously referred to as Mascot Airport), located in the southern Sydney suburb of Mascot is the major airport for not just the state but the whole nation. It is a hub for Australia’s national airline Qantas.
Other airlines serving regional New South Wales include:
- Aeropelican Air Services
- Brindabella Airlines
- Jetstar Airways
- Regional Express (also known as Rex);
- Virgin Australia (formerly known as Virgin Blue Airlines).
The state government through Sydney Ferries operates ferries within Sydney Harbour and the Parramatta River. It also has a ferry service within Newcastle. All other ferry services are privately operated.
Spirit of Tasmania ran a commercial ferry service between Sydney and Devonport, Tasmania. This service was terminated in 2006.Private boat services operated between South Australia, Victoria and New South Wales along the Murray and Darling Rivers but these only exist now as the occasional tourist paddle-wheeler service.